python-多版本管理

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本篇文章主要介绍两种多版本的python管理,大家可以根据自己的需求选择合适的方案

方案一:pyenv

pyenv 是python的开源的多版本管理

在这里插入图片描述

https://github.com/pyenv/pyenv

安装

安装相关依赖

yum install -y gcc make patch gdbm-devel openssl-devel sqlite-devel readline-devel zlib-devel bzip2-devel

安装git

yum install -y git

安装pyenv

下载git

 git clone https://github.com/pyenv/pyenv.git ~/.pyenv

配置环境变量 ~/.bashrc

export PATH="/home/.pyenv/bin:$PATH"
eval "$(pyenv init -)"
eval "$(pyenv virtualenv-init -)"

命令使用

查看可安装版本

pyenv install --list

安装python版本

pyenv install 3.6.6

设置python本地版本

pyenv local 3.6.6

设置全局python版本

python global 2.7.10

卸载

rm -rf $(pyenv root)

方案二: conda

开源地址:https://github.com/conda/conda

安装

下载安装脚本

wget -c https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/miniconda/Miniconda2-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh

执行安装

$ sh Miniconda3-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh

# 以下是安装式终端的一些发送信息
Welcome to Miniconda3 py38_4.9.2

In order to continue the installation process, please review the license
agreement.
Please, press ENTER to continue
>>>
===================================
End User License Agreement - Anaconda Individual Edition
===================================

Copyright 2015-2020, Anaconda, Inc.

All rights reserved under the 3-clause BSD License:



The following packages are included in the repository accessible through Anaconda Individual Edition that relate to cryptography:

openssl
    The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a robust, commercial-grade, full-featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Se
cure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocols as well as a full-strength general purpose cryptography library.

pycrypto
    A collection of both secure hash functions (such as SHA256 and RIPEMD160), and various encryption algorithms (AES, DES, RSA, ElGamal, etc.).

pyopenssl
    A thin Python wrapper around (a subset of) the OpenSSL library.

kerberos (krb5, non-Windows platforms)
    A network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography.

cryptography
    A Python library which exposes cryptographic recipes and primitives.

pycryptodome
    A fork of PyCrypto. It is a self-contained Python package of low-level cryptographic primitives.

pycryptodomex
    A stand-alone version of pycryptodome.

libsodium
    A software library for encryption, decryption, signatures, password hashing and more.

pynacl
    A Python binding to the Networking and Cryptography library, a crypto library with the stated goal of improving usability, security and speed.


Last updated September 28, 2020

# 是否接受license 直接输入yes 回车
Do you accept the license terms? [yes|no]
[no] >>> yes

Miniconda3 will now be installed into this location:
/root/miniconda3

  - Press ENTER to confirm the location
  - Press CTRL-C to abort the installation
  - Or specify a different location below

[/root/miniconda3] >>>
PREFIX=/root/miniconda3
Unpacking payload ...
Collecting package metadata (current_repodata.json): done
Solving environment: done

## Package Plan ##

  environment location: /root/miniconda3
.....
Preparing transaction: done
Executing transaction: done
installation finished.
Do you wish the installer to initialize Miniconda3
# 这里直接输入yes
by running conda init? [yes|no]
[no] >>> yes
no change     /root/miniconda3/condabin/conda
no change     /root/miniconda3/bin/conda
no change     /root/miniconda3/bin/conda-env
no change     /root/miniconda3/bin/activate
no change     /root/miniconda3/bin/deactivate
no change     /root/miniconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh
no change     /root/miniconda3/etc/fish/conf.d/conda.fish
no change     /root/miniconda3/shell/condabin/Conda.psm1
no change     /root/miniconda3/shell/condabin/conda-hook.ps1
no change     /root/miniconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/xontrib/conda.xsh
no change     /root/miniconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.csh
modified      /root/.bashrc

==> For changes to take effect, close and re-open your current shell. <==

If you'd prefer that conda's base environment not be activated on startup,
   set the auto_activate_base parameter to false:

conda config --set auto_activate_base false

# 安装完成
Thank you for installing Miniconda3!

配置conda镜像

conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/free
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/conda-forge
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/bioconda
conda config --set show_channel_urls yes

配置环境

安装最新版本python2

# 创建py2环境
conda create -n py2 python=python2

安装最新版本python3

# 创建py3 并安装软件
conda create --name python35 python=3.5
# conda create -n py3 python=python3 numpy matplotlib
# 进入py3开发环境
activate py3  

命令

查询python版本

$conda list

查询可用版本

$conda search

安装可用版本

$conda install <package-name>

列举当前所有环境

$conda info --envs

进入虚拟环境

$activate virtual_env

退出虚拟环境

$conda deactivate

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